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   2019| July-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 30, 2020

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Dental caries prevalence of children in Kerala: A paradigm shift needed toward a Kerala model of health
Faizal C Peedikayil, Akhila Ansari
July-December 2019, 7(2):29-33
Kerala state in India ranks high in the health-care indicators and is considered to be giving high importance in primary health care. This review of literature was done to know the the prevalence of dental caries in children below 16 years of age in Kerala State. Online search for articles in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar fetched 15 articles. The prevalence of caries in those articles was reviewed and discussed with other studies and systematic reviews published recently on the dental caries in India. This review shows that the prevalence of dental caries in children is high. Considering the status of Kerala in health-care facilities and reach to the grassroots level, it is recommended that government can bring about new initiatives to decrease the prevalence of dental caries in Kerala.
  1,170 32 -
Evaluation of deproteinization on clinical success and longevity of pit and fissure sealants on erupting permanent first molars – An In vivo study
KB Roopa, Ashwin Bahanan Abraham, P Poornima, K Mallikarjuna, NB Nagaveni, IE Neena
July-December 2019, 7(2):42-48
Objective: Higher protein content in the maturing enamel could hamper adequate etching for sealant application. Removing the organic content could improve its adhesion due surface alterations in the enamel. To enhance retention of sealants, higher protein content in immature permanent molar enamel could be deproteinized with sodium hypochlorite. Hence, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of deproteinization with 5% sodium hypochlorite before and after acid etching on the longevity of pit and fissure sealants. Methodology: One hundred and five immature first permanent molar in 35 children aged 6–9 years were included. In Group A, a protocol of etching, bonding and sealant application was followed. In Group B and Group C, deproteinization was done after and before etching, respectively, followed by bonding and sealant application. Groups were examined at 3, 6, and 9 months for sealant retention using Simonsen's criteria. Results: Intergroup comparison for retained sealants across all three groups over 9 months revealed that retention is more in Group A, followed by Group B and least in Group C. Conclusion: Deproteinization does not have an added advantage in the retention of pit and fissure sealant over routine acid etching method. Deproteinization after etching is better compared to deproteinization before etching.
  1,016 22 -
Association between nicotine dependence and exhaled carbon monoxide level among truck drivers in Chennai City
Monica Gurupriya Mohanram, Madan Kumar Parangimalai Diwakar
July-December 2019, 7(2):34-38
Background: Between 2009 and 2016, India has made progress in reducing the prevalence of the use of both smoked and smokeless forms of tobacco. Efforts to quit tobacco use have increased, but successful quitting remains low. One of the known factors that hindered smoking cessation is nicotine dependence. There are two methods of measurement that are currently being used in order to assess the nicotine dependence, a self-reported method by the smokers, and the other being biochemical assessment of nicotine metabolite. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of smokers among truck drivers in Chennai city and to assess the association between the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) level among them. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenient sample of 493 truck drivers above 18 years of age. Dependence was assessed using the modified FTND scale. A CO breath analyzer was used to assess the amount of CO in the breath. Results: The mean age of the participants was 38.92 ± 10.43 ranging from 19 to 75 years. Nicotine dependence of smokers had a significant moderate correlation with CO level. Conclusions: The result of the present study showed that the exhaled CO level was associated with self-reported nicotine dependence and it may serve as a more objective method in detecting smoking.
  1,009 27 -
Prevalence of dental caries among 5 & 12 years old children - A retrospective data analysis
Prabhu Subramani, AJ Abishiny Mickey
July-December 2019, 7(2):39-41
Background: Dental caries is an important social problem in India and is predominantly a disease of childhood. While there has been a great decline of caries incidence in high-income countries, the middle- and low-income countries suffer a high rate of incidence. It is due to the increasing consumption of refined carbohydrates, poor oral hygiene, and lack of dental awareness. This study aimed at the prevalence of dental caries among 5- and 12-year-old children in Tirukalukundram Taluk. Materials and Methods: A retrospective data analysis was performed with the data collected from the government school students in Tirukalukundram Taluk in 2018–2019. Registers containing data were screened for dental caries. Results: Among 515 study participants, 291 were male and 224 were female. The prevalence of dental caries is high among male compared to female children. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries is high in 5-year-old children than 12–year-old children. The filled component is nil in 5-year-old children. This clearly illustrates the utilization pattern of dental care services by the children. Hence, efforts should be taken to educate the rural people and government schoolchildren on oral hygiene and its maintenance.
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Dental caries and body mass index: A cross-sectional study among urban schoolchildren of age between 7 and 15 years in Chennai, India
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
July-December 2019, 7(2):49-49
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