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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to the oral health among the pregnant women attending a government hospital, Chennai
L Leelavathi, T Hepzibah Merlin, V Ramani, R Anita Suja, Chitraa R Chandran
January-June 2018, 6(1):16-20
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_8_17  
Background: Good oral hygiene during pregnancy improves oral and general health of the mother, which in turn promotes oral and general health of the child. Hence, a study was done to assess knowledge and practices of pregnant woman regarding oral health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending a Government hospital, Chennai. A total of 500 samples were selected by convenience sampling technique. A questionnaire containing 16 close-ended questions related to knowledge, attitude, and practices pertaining to oral health during pregnancy along with demographic data was used for collecting baseline information. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: Majority of the study participants (95%) were not aware that gum disease can cause preterm low birth weight babies. Most of them (93%) were not aware of safe period for undergoing dental treatment during pregnancy. Majority of the study participants (97.4%) used tooth brush and tooth paste to clean their teeth. Nearly half of the study participants (48.6%) replied that they consult dentist while experiencing dental problems. Conclusion: The knowledge related to oral health of pregnant women during pregnancy was found to be low and need to be improved. Oral health practice was not sufficient among the study participants and therefore proper health education is to be given to them regarding the importance of oral hygiene aids to maintain good oral health. Attitude toward dental visit has to be improved.
  1,995 130 -
Prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in a specified population of district Yamunanagar, Haryana, India
Ashvini Kumar Almadi, Nymphea Pandit, Deepika Bali, Pallavi Marya
January-June 2018, 6(1):3-7
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_3_17  
Objective: To assess the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis and associated risk factors in 15–30-year-old school/college-going adolescent population/adults in district Yamunanagar, Haryana, India. Methodology: A total of 3875 individuals from 12 schools and 6 colleges of 6 blocks of district Yamunanagar were assessed on random basis in two stages. The first stage included assessment of risk factors and any systemic illnesses and periodontal assessment. In the second stage, complete periodontal and radiographic examination including bitewing examination of the molar region and periapical examination of incisor regions was carried out for the confirmation of aggressive periodontitis. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square and Fisher's exact test was applied to find the association between different variables. The overall model was tested by the Chi-square test and goodness of fit of the model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Results: In the present study, 2043 participants were male and 1832 were female while 6 participants (2 males and 4 females) were found to be affected with aggressive periodontitis, thus giving the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in the present study of 0.15% (95% confidence interval: 0.05%–0.34%) with female: male ratio of 2:1. Religion, socioeconomic status, diet, method and frequency of tooth cleaning, and smoking/tobacco were not significantly associated with aggressive periodontitis. Conclusion: This study provides an insight into the existing lifestyle trends, attitude, and oral hygiene behavior of children/young adolescents and their association with the progression of disease.
  1,341 83 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Spinal cord injury and oral health status: A systematic review
Ravi Karthikayan, Aparna Sukumaran, Kiran Iyer, Madan Kumar Parangimalai Diwakar
July-December 2018, 6(2):21-26
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_4_18  
Aim: To assess the oral health status in patients with various levels of spinal cord injury. Data Sources: Relevant studies were included from the period of January 2007 to October 2017 via MEDLINE, EMBASE and GOOGLE SCHOLAR, TRIP DATABASE. The search identified no randomized control trials for the proposed research question. The first set of terms included 'oral health status of spinal cord injury patient. The second set included the term 'oral health', 'dental health' separated by Boolean operator “OR” 'and the third set included the term 'spinal cord injury patient, 'upper limb paralysed patients 'separated by Boolean operator “OR. Conclusion: Based on inclusion criteria 5 articles were included. The methodological quality of the selected articles were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) 1998. The study results implied that the oral health among SCI patients was fair which is due to poor oral hygiene practices, greater levels of plaque, gingival bleeding and increase levels of caries experience. Oral hygiene instructions should be given in these patients and the caregivers should be trained adequately to maintain the oral hygiene of these physically compromised patients.
  1,142 49 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Impact of socioeconomic status on decayed, missing, and filled teeth among industrial recruits of Bhopal City, India
Anshika Khare, Vrinda Saxena, Manish Jain
January-June 2018, 6(1):8-15
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_2_18  
Background: In this contemporary world urbanization leads to the development of various industries on an immense scale. Although rapid industrialization symbolizes the growth of any nation but it can impinge on the general as well as the oral health of their employees. Aim: To assess the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) of industrial recruits of Bhopal city, India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 448 industrial recruits of GEI (General Engineering Industry). Modified WHO-2013, oral health Proforma was used to appraise their dentition and related treatment necessities. Statistical analysis was done by using Chi square and ANOVA (Analysis of variance) test used for statistic analysis. Result: The result of this study showed that dental caries prevalence not remarkably exaggerated by socioeconomic status but the mean number of decayed, filled and missing teeth unswervingly allied with socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study concluded that dentition status of GEI, industrial recruits was not good, especially in the lower class SES. Therefore, to reduce this disparity equitable distribution of oral health of services are required.
  1,096 48 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Common dental diseases - Dispelling the prevailing myth
Selwin Gabriel Samuel, S K. Indu Bharkavi
January-June 2018, 6(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_9_17  
Dental caries is generally considered to be the most common oral disease. According to the studies that have recorded the prevalence of oral diseases, periodontal diseases do not have records about its prevalence as much as dental caries. The periodontal diseases, both gingivitis and periodontitis occur due to various reasons, as they are multifactorial. Based on the correlation of the knowledge of the pathophysiology of diseases affecting periodontium and available data, it can be derived that gingivitis is also as common as dental caries. The authors speculate that sacking of gingivitis into a broader term of periodontal diseases may be the reason that hinders this fact. Hence, there is an obvious need to replace the tradition with actuality by making a deeper investigation.
  1,079 51 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A survey on NEET-MDS examination among dental graduates in South India
Benley George, Shibu Thomas Sebastian, Rino Roopak Soman, Minimol K Johny
July-December 2018, 6(2):41-44
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_7_18  
Background: In India, there are 6149 dental post-graduation seats across 254 dental colleges. The admission to these postgraduation seats is done through a common online NEET-MDS examination. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of NEET-MDS examination among dental graduates in South India. Materials and Methods: Around 423 participants from five randomly selected entrance coaching centers in the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Karnataka participated in the survey. The level of significance was set P < 0.05. Statistical analysis was done using Fisher's exact test. Results: The survey demonstrated that 174 (41.1%) of the participants were males and 249 (58.9%) were females. Majority (60.2%) of the participants had one attempt for the examination and only (4.9%) of the participants had three or more attempts for the examination. 58% of the respondents considered the NEET examination as a good assessment of dental graduates. Conclusion: The present survey reveals that most of the students preferred the computer-based NEET- MDS examination. Both male and female students should almost similar responses to the questions in the survey.
  1,061 63 -
Oral health status of orphanage children, Tumkur: A survey report
Darshana Bennadi, S Shabanam, N Nasweef Abdul, Adheena Jacob, K Malini, JV Bharateesh
July-December 2018, 6(2):27-29
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_3_18  
Background and Aim: It has been well documented that the absence of family support influences the general and oral health of the children. Oral health symbolizes the general health and quality of life of an individual. The socioeconomic status and emotional factor show a direct impact on oral health status of children. Hence, survey was done with an objective to assess the baseline data regarding oral health problems among orphan children of Tumkur, Karnataka. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2- to 15-year-old children residing in five orphanages of Tumkur. Prior permission and consent were obtained from respective authorities, institution, and children. Self-administered questionnaire included demographic details, oral hygiene practice, duration of stay, decayed, missing, filled tooth (DMFT) and tooth fracture status, and gingival status. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 110 children in the age group of 2–15 years were examined. The findings of the examination highlighted untreated caries and no filled component which may be attributed to poverty, illiteracy, poor awareness, and lack of oral health services. Conclusion: Survey showed the need for oral health care services at orphanages of Tumkur. Spare time to serve our social responsibility (in the form of health services and psychological comfort) toward society either individually or along with institutions, nongovernmental organization, and public–private partnerships.
  989 68 -
Assessment of anxiety and depression among dental practitioners in a dental school in South Kerala
Shibu Thomas Sebastian, Abraham Mathen, Benley George, Rino Roopak Soman, Vinod Mathew Mulamoottil
July-December 2018, 6(2):36-40
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_6_18  PMID:`
Background: Identification of the potential sources of depression and anxiety is important in dentistry, as it gives opportunity to take various measures to prevent these in a dental environment. This study aimed to investigate the causes of anxiety and depression among dental practitioners in a dental school in South Kerala. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 dental practitioners working in a dental school in South Kerala. Depression and anxiety status was measured through prevalidated questionnaire Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scale and the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale. A 5-point Likert scale was used to record the responses from the study participants. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS package version 18. Results: The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 48% and 52%, respectively. Gender, educational level, choosing dentistry by chance, part-time practicing, marital status, lack of additional source of income, lack of physical exercise, and smoking were associated significantly with depressive symptoms (P < 0.05). Almost all sociodemographic, work-related characteristics, lifestyle except years of practicing, number of patients, and sleeping time were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dental practitioners were subject to many sources of anxiety and depression in their workplaces, with significant relationships with educational level, choosing dentistry by chance, part-time practicing, marital status, and lack of additional source of income. Dentists should be encouraged to participate in stress management courses to alleviate stress.
  796 32 -
Oral habits and sociodemographic factors as determinants of tooth wear lesions among the elderly population in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Omoigberai Bashiru Braimoh, Grace Onyenashia Alade
July-December 2018, 6(2):30-35
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_5_18  
Background: Knowledge of the risk factors of tooth wear is necessary for the prevention and effective treatment of tooth wear lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate sociodemographic factors and oral habits associated with tooth wear in the elderly in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The study was an observational research design in which participants were selected by systematic random sampling. Data were collected using pilot-tested questionnaire and tooth wear recorded using tooth wear index of Smith and Knight. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. Multiple regression analysis and Chi-Square test was used to test association between variables. Significance was inferred at P < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval. Results: Tooth wear was significantly higher in males than in females (P = 0.03). There was a significant increase in tooth wear with increasing age (P = 0.001). Individuals with a lower level of education had significant higher tooth wear than those with a higher level of education (P = 0.01). There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between tooth wear lesions and tooth cleaning technique, materials used for cleaning the teeth, toothbrush texture, and consumption of carbonated soft drink. However, the association between tooth wear and teeth grinding as well as frequency of teeth cleaning was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Consumption of carbonated soft drinks, toothbrushing technique, toothbrush texture, and materials used for tooth cleaning were risk indicators of tooth wear among the elderly population. Therefore, oral health education of the elderly and the general population on appropriate diet and oral hygiene practices is advocated.
  772 36 -
An assessment of oral health status and treatment needs of professional bus drivers in Chennai
Aparna Sukumaran, Madan Kumar Parangimalai Diwakar, Shivakumar Mahadeva Shastry
July-December 2018, 6(2):45-50
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_8_18  
Background: Bus drivers represent a special population group or community who deserve to be attended both on oral and general health due to the various occupational and environmental hazards they encounter in their daily life. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of professional bus drivers in Chennai. Methods: Cross sectional data was collected from 860 professional bus drivers in Chennai city. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables, oral hygiene practices, tobacco usage, sweet consumption and work related stress. A clinical examination was done according to WHO criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO oral health assessment form. Results: The mean age of the study population was 40.25 years. With regard to sweet score, about 739 (85.9%) drivers were in “watch out” zone. There was significant correlation between sweet scores and DMFT (P = .000). About 524 (60.9%) drivers felt stress at work, 78(9.1%) drivers had leukoplakia, 5 (0.6%) had ulceration, 7 (0.8%) had candidiasis and 30(3.5%) had other conditions. The mean DMFT was 5.53. About 471 (54,8%) had dental calculus, 107 (12.4%) had periodontal pocket depth 6mm or more. Conclusion: The oral health status of bus drivers was poor with high prevalence of periodontal disease and dental caries.
  690 34 -