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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2019
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-27

Online since Monday, January 6, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Estimation and correlation of the amount of fluoride output in urine after the application of fluoride gel and fluoride varnish in children with early childhood caries p. 1
Savitha Sathya Prasad, Allwin Antony Thottathil, KS Neethu
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_6_19  
Introduction: As all the topical fluorides contain a high concentration of fluorides and it is started at an early age when the swallowing reflexes are not well established, there is every chance the child may ingest a high amount of fluoride. As there are inconsistencies related to the usage of fluoride varnish in children, there is a need to study the toxicological aspects of fluoride varnish. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to estimate the amount of fluoride output through urine after the application of fluoride varnish and gel and to assess the safety levels of the same in early childhood caries (ECC) patients. Methodology: This study was conducted on twenty ECC-rehabilitated children of age group 4–6 years who were divided into two phases. In Phase I, the children were subjected to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel, and in Phase II, they were subjected to Fluor Protector varnish. In Phase I, the urine samples of each child were collected for the estimation of fluoride level which was considered as the baseline sample. After the application of APF gel, two urine samples were collected at 24 and 48 h for the estimation of fluoride levels. The same children were included in Phase II and were given placebo dentifrice for 7 days before commencing the procedure. The same experiment was repeated after the application of Fluor Protector varnish, and the collected urine samples were subjected for the estimation of fluoride level in laboratory with the use of fluoride ion-specific electrode and a miniature calomel reference electrode coupled to potentiometer. Values were recorded and the urinary fluoride concentration at different time intervals in each group was compared using the Friedman test followed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: The mean urinary fluoride concentration in Group 1 at 24 h was 1.09 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.52) and at 48 h 0.74 (SD = 0.44). The mean urinary fluoride concentration in Group 2 at 24 h was 1.18 (SD = 0.65) and at 48 h 0.94 (SD = 0.59). There was a gradual increase in the 24th-h sample of both the groups, which also showed a decline of fluoride concentration at the 48th h. When both the groups were compared, Group 2 showed a marginal increase in fluoride concentration at different intervals of time, which was statistically nonsignificant. Conclusions: Fluor Protector varnish had an increased sustained release of fluoride ions when compared to APF gel, and there was a gradual decrease in the fluoride concentration which suggested that the fluoride concentration was approximating the baseline level (the safety level). The present study has provided a sound basis of recommendation for the safe and effective use of professionally applied fluoride products.
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Dental caries and body mass index: A cross-sectional study among urban schoolchildren of age between 7 and 15 years in Chennai, India p. 7
R Anusha, Lakshmi Krishnan, Madan Kumar Parangimalar Diwakar
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_4_19  
Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the association between dental caries and commonly proposed risk factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), sugar intake, junk food consumption, and intermittent snacking habit among school-going children of upper socioeconomic status in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out among 610 children of age between 7 and 15 years studying in a private school. A preformed content-validated pro forma was used to collect the data regarding demographic details (age, gender, height, and weight), dietary pattern (sugar consumption in the past 24 h assessed through sweet score, snacking in between meals, and junk food consumption in the past 24 h), and dental chart (for the presence of decay, missing, filled, trauma, and other findings). Weight and height of the children were recorded, and BMI was calculated using the formula weight (kg)/height (m2). Results: On the whole, except for age and gender, none of the factors assessed including BMI, junk food intake, and snack intake were found to be associated with dental caries. Conclusion: With the changing dietary patterns and demography, the dynamic nature of dental caries is better assessed if approached in terms of common risk factors.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental students regarding medical emergency preparedness in Paonta Sahib, Himachal Pradesh p. 11
Priyanka Sharma, Pema Dorjee Khriney, Priyadarshani Pradhan, Priya Chettri, Pratick Dahal, Sumeet Bhatt
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_5_19  
Background: Medical emergencies in dental clinics are sometimes life-threatening situations requiring immediate attention. Dental professionals should have adequate skills to manage such emergencies in dental setup. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental students regarding medical emergency preparedness. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and thirteen dental students (52 interns and 61 postgraduates) participated in this questionnaire-based survey. A close-ended pretested questionnaire consisting of 17 questions was used to assess the study parameters. Comparison of responses of interns and postgraduates was done using Chi-square test. The level of significance for this study was fixed at P < 0.05. Results: Postgraduates had a better knowledge of diagnosis of medical emergencies than interns (P = 0.001). More postgraduates had attended a workshop on medical emergency management (P < 0.001) and had given intramuscular injections (P = 0.001) than interns. Conclusions: The basic knowledge and practices regarding medical emergency management were better in postgraduates than interns. Expertise in the management of medical emergencies is essential for dental health-care professionals. Students should be trained better in medical emergency management at undergraduate level.
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Knowledge on history of dentistry among dental graduates in Kerala, India p. 15
Benley George, Shibu Thomas Sebastian, Rino Roopak Soman, Minimol K Johny
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_1_19  
Background: Ailments pertaining to teeth and jaws were treated in a general manner, not requiring the services of a specialist. It is logical that progress in dentistry would go hand in hand with the progress of dentistry made in ancient civilizations. Materials and Methods: The present study was an online questionnaire-based survey among interns from six dental colleges across Kerala. The survey was conducted by a third party using a mobile application which consisted of nine questions in English. Two hundred and twenty-eight participants had responded by participating in the survey. The level of significance was set as P < 0.05. Results: A total of 228 participants were included in the study. Among the study participants, 87.7% of the participants were female and 12.3% were male. The present study showed that 57.1% of males knew the location of the world's first dental school when compared to females. The study revealed that only 36% of females and 14.3% of males knew when the first dental X-ray was performed in a patient. Only 57.1% of males and 48% of females knew the fact that Dr. GV Black is regarded as the Grand Old Man of Dentistry. Conclusion: The present study showed that the level of knowledge about history of dentistry among dental graduates was less. The levels of knowledge about dentistry among male and female students were almost similar.
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Knowledge of yoga and its health benefits among dentists in South Kerala, India p. 19
Benley George, Shibu Thomas Sebastian, Rino Roopak Soman, Minimol K Johny
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_9_18  
Background: Yoga as a holistic approach to health and is classified by the national institutes of health as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. Regular practice of yoga helps to build a better connectivity the mind and body through a series of postures, breathing exercises, and meditation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess the level of knowledge regarding yoga and its health benefits among dentists in South Kerala. A total of 280 dentists participated in the survey. The level of significance was set as P < 0.05. Results: The survey revealed that knowledge of yoga and its health benefits was highest among males when compared to females. The survey shows that 57.1% of dentists believe that yoga can have an impact on oral health. Only 27.1% and 21.4% of the dentist knew about Bikram yoga and Kapalbhati yoga, respectively. Conclusion: The survey reveals that dentists had less knowledge about yoga. Proper yoga training for dentists would help them develop a healthy lifestyle and reduce stress-related health problems.
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CASE REPORT Top

Medication use for glaucoma contributing to a high caries risk p. 24
Afolabi Oyapero, Cynthia O Amadasun, Olufemi O Olagundoye
DOI:10.4103/ijcd.ijcd_2_19  
Dental caries is a chronic, transmissible disease of multifactorial etiology. There are a number of factors involved in the process of caries development. Xerostomia, resulting from medication use, may act synergistically with other known caries risk factors and indicators. We present a case report of a patient with high caries risk complicated by reduced salivary flow due to medications used in the treatment of glaucoma (Brimodin and Xalacom). A 36-year-old woman presented was referred to the Preventive Dentistry Clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria, on account of a 3-week history of toothache in the upper right quadrant. She had a high caries risk and a decayed, missing, and filled teeth index of 19. Consumption of cariogenic meals, poor plaque control, and treatment of glaucoma since childhood, with xerogenic medication, including xalacom and brimodin were determined to be part of the multifactorial etiology in this case. After relief of pain through pulp extirpation, the patient motivation and counseling on caries process, the need for good oral hygiene, and proper diet were done. Scaling and polishing were also done in addition to fluoride therapy and chemical plaque control. Improvement of salivary flow with the use of sugar-free chewing gum, artificial saliva, and frequent sipping of small quantities of water was also prescribed while the patient was referred to the restorative and oral surgery units for extraction of retained roots, composite fillings, and denture fabrication. Patients that present to any dental clinic with multiple carious lesions must be reviewed by the preventive dentistry specialists and have their caries risk assessed. It is also imperative that ophthalmologists include a dental consultation in the overall management of their patients, especially when they prescribe medication that has known oral side effects.
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